How to Master Almost Everything
by Anders Ericsson and Robert Pool
> Ray Allen is a ten-times All-Star in the National Basketball Association and the greatest three-point shooter in the history of that league. People said that he is innately talented, but Allen disagreed. “I hate people say that I’m gifted. I wasn’t a good shooter in high school. I made a lot of efforts to be who I am now.”
> Here is an interesting fact. Many people take piano lessons, but only those with some special gift became truly great pianists or composers. Every child is exposed to mathematics in school, but only a few have what it takes to become mathematicians or physicists or engineers.
> Today we believe that there is no such thing as a predefined ability. The brain is adaptable, and training can create skills. Learning isn’t a way of reaching one’s potential but rather a way of developing it.
> “Just keep working at it, and you’ll get there” – this is wrong. The right sort of practice carred out over a sufficient period of time leads to improvement.
> If a friend gives you his adress, it is your shorterm memory that holds on to it just long enough to write it down.
> Normally, people can not remember more than seven-digit numbers in short. However, Martin and Fernberger reported that two undergraduate subjects had been able, with four months of practice, to increase the number of digits they could remember when given the digits at a rate of about one per second.
> Steve is an undergraduate subject. He could only remember seven-digit numbers. Surprisingly, he remembered eighty-two digits. By the sixtieth session he was able to consistently remember twenty digits. After more than two hundread training sessions, he had reached eighty-two digits. The training sessions went like this: I would start with a random five-digit string, and if Steve got it right, I would go to six digits. If he got that right, we’d go to seven digits, and so on, increasing the length of the string by one each time he got it right. If he got it wrong, I would drop the length of the string by two and go again.
> Here is another interesting fact. In 1908, Johnny Hayes won the Olympic marathon in what newspapers at the time described as “the greatest race of the century.” Hayes’ winnin time, which set a world record for the marathon, was 2 hours, 55 minutes, and 18 seconds. Today, the world record for a marathon is 2 hours, 2 minutes, and 57 seconds – nearly 30 percent faster than Hayes’ record time. Hayes’ world-record time in 1908 would qualify him for today’s Boston Marathon.
> In 1908 Summer Olympics one of the divers barealy avoided serious injury while attempting a double somersault, and an official report released a few months later concluded that the dive was simply too dangerous and recommended that it be banned from future Olympic Games. Today, the double somersault is an entry-level dive. Ten-year-old boys nail four and a half somersaults. World-class people do “the Twist” – two and a half backward somersaults with two and a half twists added.
> In 1973 David Richard Spencer had memorized more digits of pi than any person before him: 511. In 2015 Rajveer Meena had memorized the first 70,000 digits of pi.
> The key point is this: a growing sophistication of training techniques.
> Imagine what might be possible if we applied the techniques that have proved to be so effective in sports and music and chess to all the different types of learning that people do, from the education of school children to the training of doctors, engineers, pilots, business people, and workers of every sort.
> This is the usual approach. We start from basic. For example, you learn tennis. You have no ideas how to play. So, you take a course and your friend teach you. Your friend adjust himself to you and you are having funs but not a player. You also play against the wall too. Your friend is still patient and you are keep learning. You get better and be able to play against others. You reached to the comfortable level and you can finally have a fun. Even if you are not completely satisfied, you accomplished the desired goal. You are an acceptable player but still have some weakness.
> There is one very important thing. Once you have reached this satisfactory skill level and automated your performance – your driving, your tennis playing, your baking of pies – you have stopped improving.
> People assume that the continued driving or tennis playing or pie baking is a form of practice and that if they keep doing it they are bound to get better at it, slowly perhaps, but better nonetheless.
> People assume that a twenty-year driver is better than a five-year driver, that a doctor who has been practicing medicine for twenty years must be a better doctor than one who has been practicing for five, and that a twenty-year teacher must be better than a five-year teacher.
> According to a research, a person does not improve the performance after that person reaches to the acceptable standard.
> The subject Steve Faloon became comfortable after a couple of sessions. On the other hand, he was constantly being challenged. Eventually, he got better.
> “Naive practice” is to do something repeatedly and this will improve the general performance. However, this is a nutshell. Suppose that you practiced a piece of music twenty times. This is a lot. However, how many times did you play correctly? One time?
> To improve your performance, you need to enter into “Purposeful practice,” which necessitate to set a defined goal. Here is an example: “Play the piece all the way through at the proper speed without a mistake three times in a row.” Without such a goal, there was no way to judge whether the practice session had been a success.
> An amature weekend-golfer can not be professional. Break it down and make a plan. How many times do you have to make successful driving? You might figure out why it is not happening. If it happens from your wrong swing, you will fix that.
> If you never push yourself beyond your comfort zone, you will never improve.
> Research on many specialties shows that doctors who have been in practice for twenty or thirty years do worse on certain objective measures of performance than those who are just two or three years out of medical school.
> There is a case about Ben Franklin. He is a great chess player. He is crazy about it. He has been playibng chess over 55 years. He plays chess from 6pm to sunrise. However, he is just above average. He was like the pianist playing the same songs the same way for thirty years.
> Getting out of your comfort zone means trying to do something that you couldn’t do before. Sometimes it is easy or seems impossible. Find ways around these barriers is one of the hidden keys to purposeful practice.
> Generally the solution is not “try harder” but rather “try differently.” It is a technique issue. The best way to get past any barrier is to come at it from a different direction, which is one reason it is useful to work with a teacher or coach. Someone who is already familiar with the sorts of obstacles you’re likely to encounter can suggest ways to overcome them.
> This is a story of Dorothy DeLay, a famous violin teacher. She trained one student to play faster. For the student, Dorothy got a recording of Itzhak Perlman. She let the student play the song with controlling the speed of the recording. Eventually, the student obtained faster violin playing than Perlman.
> A lot of people give up if they reach to their limitations. Sometimes strong motives move people to challenge their limitations.
> The author says, “Get outside your comfort zone but do it in a focused way, with clear goals, a plan for reaching those goals, and a way to monitor your progress.”
> Trying hard isn’t enough; pushing yourself to your limits isn’t enough.
> Bodybuilding or other sports, you can check your progresses. And you can also track progresses in mental challenges. However, it is going to be a little different. Htere is no soreness in your cortex the day after a particularly tough training session. You don’t have to go out and buy new hats because the old ones are now too small. You don’t have to develop a six-pack on your forehead.
> The human brain grows and changes in response to intense training.
> The human body is incredibly adaptable. Look at people who do push-ups 10,507 times or 46,001 times.
> Even improving eyes are possible. A researcher collected people having problems with reading small characters and trained them. They could read characters 60% smaller than characters first time they couldn’t read during the research.
> Suppose you run three times a week for half an hour. The sustained activity will, among other things, lead to low levles of oxygen in the capillaries in order to provide more oxygen to the muscle cells in your legs and return them to their comfort zone.
> Push it hard enough and for long enough, and it will respond by changing in ways that make that push easier to do. You will have gotten a little stronger, built a little more endurance, developed a little more coordination. But there is a catch: once the compensatory changes have occurred – new muscle fibers have grown and become more efficient, new capillaries have grown, and so on – the body can handle the physical activity that had previously stressed it. It is comfortable again. The changes stop. So to keep the changes happening, you have to keep upping the ante: run farther, run faster, run uphill. If you don’t keep pushing and pushing and pushing somre more, they body will settle into homeostasis, albeit at a different level than before, and you will stop improving. This explains the importance of staying just outside your comfort zone: you need to continually push to keep the body’s compensatory changes coming, but if you push too far outside your comfort zone, you risk injuring yourslef and actually setting yourself back.
> Regular training lead to changes in the parts of the brain that are challenged by training. The brain adapts to these challenges by rewiring itself in ways that increase its ability to carry out the functions required by the challenges.
> Younger brains are more adaptable than older brains.
> If you stop training, your skills go away.
> Most people live lives that are not particularly physically challenging. They sit at a desk, or if they more around, it’s not a lot.
> The reason that most people don’t possess extraordinary physical capabilities isn’t because they don’t have the capacity for them, but rather because they’re satisfied to live in the comfortable run of homeostasis and never do the work that is required to get out of it.
> Alekhine could play chess games in memories too without the diagrams.
> There was an experiment, which is to remember the arrangement of the chessboards. Surprisingly, the chess masters and the novice did the similar jobs.
> Normally if you speak a sentence in an irregular order, that person will not be able to remember the sentence. However, if you speak the sentence in a right order, that person will remember the sentence. This is the mind of chess masters. They remember the chess positions in a right order and they are not in random positions.
> Research has shown that the amount of time spent in this sort of analysis – not the amount of time spent playing chess with others – is the single most important predictor of a chess player’s ability.
> The way that grandmasters process and make sense of chess positions is an example of a mental representation. It is their way of “seeing” the board, and it’s quite different from how a novice would see the same board.
> This is an example of mental representations. If someone mentions Mona Lisa, most people will immediately see the painting.
> Here is another example of mental representations. If have grown up in some isolated place and where there are no four-legged animals, you will never know what it means when someone mentions ‘dog.’ However, you see dogs and be with them, you will know what dogs are.
> Much of deliberate practice involves developing ever more efficient mental representations that you can use in whatever activity you are practicing.
> When London taxi trainees are learning to nevigate efficiently from every point A to every point B in the city, they do it by developing increasingly sophisticated mental maps of the city – that is, by making mental representations.
> Even when the skill being practiced is primarily physical, a major factor is the development of the proper mental representations.
> Without the mental representations necessary to produce and control the body’s movements correctly, the physical changes would be of no use.
> You don’t train to become an athlte; you train to become a gymnast or a sprinter or a marathoner or a swimmer or a basetball player. You don’t train to become a doctor; you train to become a diagnostician or a pathologist or a neurosurgeon.
> The main thing that sets experts apart from the rest of us is that their years of practice have changed the heural circuitry in their brains to produce highly specialized mental representations, which in turn make possible the incredible memory, pattern recognition, problem solving, and other sorts of advanced abilities needed to excell in their particular speciaties.
> In team sports, there is a pattern and players recognize it. The author did an experiment. He showed a soccer match video and asked soccer players to predict the movements of the players in the video when the author stopped the video. A lot of soccer players predicted the movements of the players in video successfully. Also, a lot of soccer players remember the positions and directions of soccer players successfully.
> The best players had a more highly developed ability to interpret the pattern of action on the field.
> Experienced rock climbers can climb easily with different grips. However, inexperienced rock climbers have to keep thinking which grips they have to use. Experienced climbers automatically choose their grips. This explains that better mental representations lead to better performance.
> The key benefit of mental representations lies in how they help us deal with information: understanding and interpreting it, holding it in memory, organizing it, analyzing it, and making decisions with it.
> People read articles. For example, football or baseball is a subject. You think people with great language skills will comprehend the subject better. However, in fact, the key point is how much people already have knowledge in that sport.
> What is the mental representation of a doctor? The doctor does not know the solutions at once. The doctor has to know information of the patient step by step. The background of a doctor determines the more understanding of the information. Medical students jump into the conclusions too fast. However, experienced doctors see multiple options. They see patterns, while medical students see pieces of symptoms.
> The key to the successful diagnosis isn’t merely having the necessary medical knowledge, but having that knowledge organized and accessible in a way that allows the doctor to come up with possible diagnoses and to zero in on the most likely.
> The best salespeople are not just ones with great knowledge in the products. It is more like organized knowledge.
> Mental representations can be used to plan a wide variety of areas, and the better the representation, the more effective the planning.
> Before experienced rock climbers begin a climb, they will look over the entire wall and visualize the path they are going to take, seeing themselves moving from hold to hold.
> Surgeons will often visualize an entire surgery before making the first incision. They use MRIs, CT scans, and other images to take a look inside the patient and identify potential trouble spots, then they devise a plan of attack.
> Mental representations aren’t just the result of learning a skill; they can also help us learn.
> The quality of mental representations makes a difference. Normal musicians need feedback from their teacher but elite musicians can find feedback from themselves.
> Advanced musicians know their mistakes. They know what they have to improve.
> The relationship between skill and mental representations is a virtuous circle: the more skilled you become, the better your mental representaions are, and the better your mental representations are, the more effecitvely you can practice to horn your skill.
> It is crucial that the musician practice and memorize the piece in such a way that the performance an be done almost automatically.
> If you don’t know for usre what constitutes improvement, how can you develop methods to improve performance?
> You have to be very competitive.
> You need a great coach.
> Because most students spend the same amount of time each week with the music teacher, the primary difference in practice from one student to the next lies in how much time the students devote to solitary practice.
> The good, the better, and the best (violinists) have the common factors. The most important part is solitary practice. The others are practicing with others, taking lessons, performing, listening to music, and studying music theory. Many of them also added enough sleeping. The top students siad that hard work is important and it is very intense and not much fun.
> The top students (violinists) practice much longer hours than the better and the good.
> To become an excellent violinist requires several thousand hours of practice.
> The techniques of musical and sports activities have grown up and more complex skills are trained nowdays.
> Deliberate practice requires a field that is already reasonably well developed.
> Deliberate practice requires a teacher who can provide practice activities designed to help a student improve his or her performance.
> Deliberate practice is informed and guided by the best performers’ accomplishments and by an understanding of what hese expert performers do to excel.
> Deliberate practice develops skills that other people have already figured out how to do and for which effective training techniques have been established.
> Deliberate practice takes place outside one’s comfort zone and requires a student to constantly try things that are just beyond his or her current abilities.
> Deliberate practice involves well-defined, specific goals and often involves improving some aspects of the target performance.
> Deliberate practice involves feedback and modification of efforts in response to that feedback.
> Deliberate practice both produces and depends on effective mental representations.
> Deliberate practice is a very specialized form of practice. You need a teacher or coach who assigns practice techniques designed to help you improve on very specific skills.
> In determining who the experts are, the ideal is to use some objective measure to separate the best from the rest.
> In many fields, people who are widely accepted as “experts” are actually not expert performers when judged by objective criteria.
> Wine experts are not really wine experts. They are not consistent all the time.
> When you choose an expert, be careful with experiences. Some doctors have a lot of experiences but they are bad, while young doctors are better with up-to-date skills.
> Seek out people who work intimately with many other professionals, such as a nurse who plays a role on several different surgery teams and can compare their performance and identify the best.
> As them what type of experience and knowledge they have.
> Find out what methods of training they do. A better teacher, an outstanding salesperson, and a better surgeon.
> Mental representations set apart the best from the rest.
> Once you have identified an expert, identify what his person does differently from others that could explain the superior performance.
> The best approach is to work with a good coach or teacher.
> A good teacher can give you valuable feedback you couldn’t get any where.
> The ten-thousand-hour rule stands that the mastery of a skill can be done by ten-thousand-hour practice; however, the author disagrees.
> The author does agree that time matters.
> “I can’t” and “I’m not” attitudes limit yourself. A right sort of trainings can improve everybody.
> Doing something for long enough is not going to improve anything. Your skill might go down slowly.
> Trying harder is not going to improve anything too.
> Anyone can improve, but it requires the right approach.
> Some radiologists are more accurate than others. Radiologists can not improve their skills because there are no ones to give them feedback.
> Knowledge is about what you know and how to do, while skills about your ability.
> When future doctors become interns and residents working under the supervision of experienced doctors, they finally learn many of the diagnostic and technical skills that they need for their specialties.
> Most people assume that as you continue to play tennis and accumulate all of those hours of “practice,” you will inevitably get better, but the reality is different: people generally don’t get much better just by playing the game itself, and, sometimes, they’ll actually be worse.
> Passive learning does not help you improve your skills.
> Doctors must keep their skills up-to-date. Attending seminars is a great idea.
> William Halsted, the surgical pioneer, says, “See one, do one, each one.”
> Training should focus on doing rather than on knowing.
> There must have been some sort of feedback available to the surgeons that allowed them to improve over time by correcting and sharpening their techniques. The author concluded that surgeons get feedback from checking the patients regularly.
> Once you have identified people who consistently perform better than their peers, the next step is to figure out what underlies that superior performance.
> The ability – to recognize unexpected situations, quickly consider various possible responses, and decide on the best one – is important not just ini medicine but in many areas.
> Surgeons make alternative decisions when the situations do not match their visualizations.
> Find a good teacher is the first step. If your skills improve, you will need to find a better teacher.
> Ask about a teacher’s experience and, if possible, investigate and even talk to the teacher’s former or current students.
> One of the most important things a teacher can do is to help you develop your own mental representations so that you can monitor and correct your own performance.
> You want to learn golfing, so you hire a golf coach. To obtain the optimal result, you will aslo hire a strength-and-conditioning coach and a nutritionist.
> Mindless repetitions will not improve anything.
> If you want to improve in chess, you don’t do it by playing chess; you do it with solitary study of the grandmasters’ games.
> It is not just about swimming for labs. You also need to improve your techniques. Even in bodybuilding, mindless repetitions do not improve anything.
> Researchers who have studied long-distance runners have found that amateurs tend to daydream or think about more pleasant subjects to take their minds off the pain and strain of their running, while elite long-distance runners remain attuned to their bodies so that they can find the optimal pace and make adjustments to maintain the best pace throughout the whole race.
> It is better to train at 100 percent effort for less time than at 70 percent effort for a long period.
> The Internet can be a good teacher if you can not afford a teacher.
> By listening to the same dialogue over and over, ESL students improved their ability to understand English much more quickly than if they’d simply watched a number of different movies. Note that these students weren’t simply doing the same thing over and over again: they were paying attention to what they got wrong each time and correcting it. This is purposeful practice.
> It does not good to do the same thing over and over again mindlessly.
> The purpose of the repetition is to figure out where your weakness are and focus on getting better in those areas, trying different methods to improve until you find something that works.
> There are the three F rules: Focus, Feedback, and Fix it.
> Comedians do not only come up with ideas. They improve their skills too.
> Everything starts from copying the masters.
> When you first start learning something new, it is normal to see rapid – or at least steady – improvement, and when improvement stops, it is natural to believe you’ve hit some sort of implacable limit. SO, you stop trying to move forward, and you settle down to life on that plateau. This is the major reason that people in every area stop improving.
> Bodybuilders, for instance, will change the types of exercises they are doing, increase or decrease the weight they’re lifting or the number of repetitions, and switch up their weekly routine.
> Typing is not just about typing. You need to create some practices.
> If you’re a tennis player, try playing a better opponent than you are used to. If you’re a manager, pay attention to what toes wrong when things get busy or chaotic.
> Spelling Bee winners study a lot alone. However, the surprising fact is that none of them love the studying.
> You like exercising and playing a guitar but soon stop improving and quit. Willpower makes a difference. It makes you to maintain intense practice.
> “I can’t do this” means that you don’t have willpower.
> Generally, people will lose weights. Later, the progress will stop and they will regain weights. The ones who are successful in losing weight over the long run are those who have successfully redesigned their lives, building new habits that allow them to maintain the behaviors that keep them losing weight in spite of all of the temptations that threaten their success.
> Motivation makes you keep going or stop.
> Make practice your new habit.
> Plan your practice time well.
> Cut off any distractions.
> Maintaining your good physicality is the most important part even for arts.
> if you keep practicing, the skill itself will become part of your motivation.
> Don’t quit. There is always a cessation period.
> Surround yourself with encouraging people and with ones who are in the same position with you. Remember that you can share knowledge and wisdom with others.
> Attending social clubs is good to learn more skills.
> You can have a journal. It can be a work journal or a sports journal. Write down what you learned and mistakes.
> Children can have very strong motivations. The chess grandmaster initiated playing chess because she liked the figures. Tiger Woods had a little golf club as a toy when he was nine months old.
> Praise is very important for your kids.
> Bloom and his colleagues found that often the experts in their study had picked up the particular interests of their parents. Parents who were involved in music, whether as performers or ardent listeners, often found their children developing an interest in music, as it was a way they could spend time with the parents and share the interest.
> Parents can share their interests with their children and motivate their children. Mathematic or sports conversations are good too for their futures.
> Part-time trainings for your kids are good too.
> For some children, eompetitoin with the sibling may itself be motivating too.
> The successful parents encouraged their children’s curiosity, and reading was a major pastime, with the parents reading to the children early on, and the children reading books temselves later. They also encouraged their children to build models for science projects – activities that could be considered educational – as part of their play.
> Obviously all of the future expert performers decided at this juncture that they wanted to keep going. Others might choose otherwise.
> The motivation must ultimately be something that comes from within the child, or else it won’t endure.
> One way that parents and teachers can provide long-term motivation is to help the children find related activities that they enjoy.
> The best teachers didn’t focus on the rules for solving particular problems but rather encouraged their students to think about general patterns and processes – the why more than the how.
> With the rewards from their hard works, students will be more motivated. For examplke, a pianist gets the applause.
> As the students continued to improve, they started to seek out better-qualified teachers and coaches who would take them to the next level.
> Later, students set a goal beyond humans. Swimmers seek international record times, pianists seek the perfect pieces which are difficult, and mathematicians expect to solve a problem that no one has ever solved before.
> With increasing age we lose flexiblity, we become more prone to injury, and we take longer to heal.
> Today a quarter of marathon runners in their sixties can be expected to outperform more than half of their competitors between the ages of twenty and fifty-four.
> For example, if ballet dancers are to develop the classic turnout – the ability to rotate the entire leg, beginning at the him, so that it points directly to the side – they must start early. If they wait until after their hip and knee joints calcify – which typically happens between the ages of eight and twelve years – they’ll probably never be able to get a full turnout.
> Only those who start training at an early age will have the requisite range of motion as adults.
> Professional tennis players who start young also overdevelop the forearm they use to hold the racket – not just the muscles, but the bones as well.
> The body and the brain both are more adaptable during childhood and adolescence than they are in adulthood.
> If you do the proper training before you turn six, you are more likely to develop perfect pitch. If you wait until you’re welve, you’ll be out of luck.
> There is Paul Brady’s story. At the age thirty-two, he started recognizing notes. He used a computer program rpoduce each sound. Then, he learned it. He did a right training.
> Trainings and researches go together. You always keep training and researching.
> A lot of experts have surpassed their teachers. The most important lesson they gleaned from their teachers is the ability to improve on their own. As part of their training, their teachers helped them develop mental representations that they could use to monitor their own performances, gifure out what needs improving, and come up with ways to realize that improvement.
> Even the famous “aha” moments could not exist without a great deal of work to build an edifice that needs just one more piece to make it complete.
> You know something is information; you publish it is a work. A lot of great scientists have a lot of paper works.
> Creativity will always retain a certain mystery because, by definition, it generates things that have not yet been seen or experienced.
> What sorts of training made it possible?
> More than 250 years after his birth, Mozart remains the ultimate example of an inexplicable prodigy, the sort of person who was so accomplished at such a young age that there seems to be no way to explain it other than to assume he was born with something extra. However, today we see often that five or sex year olds students trained in Suzuki method playing beautifully on the violin and piano. The author claims that Mozart got the best support from his family. His father was a musician. That explains his abilities.
> Donald Thomas was not a basketball player at that time. His friend who is a high jumper showed him high jump. Then, Donald Thomas cleared seven feet. The author claims that he told to the interviewer that he competed jump in high school. The author also found a picture that Thomas is clearing the bar in the first college meet. He was already using a technique, which the author claims that Thomas is not just naturally talented.
> There is another group. Some play a musical instrument and often have thousands of different pieces of music memorized and can sometimes play a new piece of music after hearing it once. Some do arithmetic calculations, such as multiplaying two arge numbers in their heads.
> Donny is a calendar calculator. People think that he is born with it but that is not ture. He has trained by himself. He has memorized the seven calendars yearly. Then, he calculate the dates.
> It is normal that a lot of people think they can not do certain things.
> There may be people with less gifts. “Tone-deaf” is one of them. However, various researchers have studied this issue, and there is no evidence that large numbers of people are born without the innate ability to sing. Indeed, there are some cultures, such as the Anang Ibibio of Nigeria, where everyone is expected to sing, everyone is taught to sing, and everyone can sing. In our culture, the reason that most nonsingers can not sing is simply that they never practiced in a way that led them to develop the ability to sing.
> When you looked around you would have noticed that some of your friends or classmates or peers were doing better than others, and some were doing worse. There are always obvious differences in how quickly different people pick something up. Being better in the beginning does not mean being the best in the end.
> Children with higher IQs do indeed become better players faster. However, the researchers found that there are no correlations between chess skills and IQs.
> Think of that. There are harder games than chess. However, that does not mean you need higher IQs to play those games or those games masters can beat you chess.
> Memory and processing speed matter more than IQ.
> It is true that kids with high IQ scores learn quickly.
> Chess grandmasters have mental representaions. They visualize the game in the brains.
> In the long run, it is the ones who practice more who prevail, not the ones who had some initial advantage in intelligence or some other talent.
> The test is given to dentists. Dental students have high Iq scores and good written exams. A lot of dental surgeons have lower IQs and normal written exams. The researchers found out that initial advantages do count in the beginning but later their influences get smaller.
> Innate talents are indeed powerful but in the end practice prevails.
> The most people are not strong or artistic because they quit when they can’t go over.
> The students who were taught the material with a method inspired by the principles of deliberate practice learned more than twice as much as those students taught with the traditional approach.
> In the deliberate-practice class the goal was not to feed information to the students but rather to get them to practice thinking like physicists.
> Innovative teaching with new technologies are required.
> Skills are above knowledge.
> When a student tries to use what the person learned, nothing is remembered. The student must keep all of these different, unconnected pieces in mind while working with them toward a solution. However, if this information is assimilated as part of building mental representations aimed at doing something, the individual pieces become part of an interconnected pattern that provides contest and meaning to the information, making it easier to work with.
> You don’t build mental representaions by thinking about something; you build them by trying to do something, failing, revising, and trying again, over and over.
> You have also absorbed a great deal of information connected with that skill.
> Deliberate pracitce in university must focus on skills, not knowledge.
> Students who develop mental representations can go on to generate their own scientific experiments or to write their own books.
> Most adults have never attained a level of performance in any field that is sufficient to show them the true power of mental representations to paln, execute, and evaluate their performance in the way that expert performers do.
> Once they do understand what is necessary to get there in one are, they understand, at least in principle, what it takes in other areas.